The Art of Simple Science Why does the world work the way it does? Linda Dong takes basic scientific principles and translates them into beautifully simple, explanatory images. The narrower the light source, the more sharp an object's shadow becomes. (Foam core, light) A battery is anything that converts chemical energy directly into electrical energy. (Potato, pennies, galvanized nails, wire, bulb) Heating the air and water inside soap causes it to vaporize and expand, creating a foam. (Microwaved Ivory soap) Potential energy is the amount of energy stored in a system because of its configuration. (Found objects) Balloons are made up of polymer chains that stretch and seal around punctures. (Needles in a balloon) Surface tension 2 (pepper, water, and dish washer soap) Unpeeled oranges float, peeled oranges don't. Air bubbles trapped in the orange rind give it buoyancy. (Orange and water) See more images.